Excel Math Functions

The Excel Math Functions perform many of the common mathematical calculations, including basic arithmetic, conditional sums & products, exponents & logarithms, and the trigonometric ratios. Mathematicians may also find the Excel Statistical Functionsand Excel Engineering Functions useful.

The tables below list all the current built-in Excel math functions, grouped into categories, to help you to find the function you need. Selecting a function will take you to a full description of the function, with examples of use and common errors.

Note that some of the Excel math functions listed below are new to Excel 2007, Excel 2010 or Excel 2013, so are not available in earlier versions of Excel.


Excel Math and Trig Functions List

Basic Numeric Information
ABSReturns the absolute value (ie. the modulus) of a supplied number
SIGNReturns the sign (+1, -1 or 0) of a supplied number
GCDReturns the Greatest Common Divisor of two or more supplied numbers
LCMReturns the Least Common Multiple of two or more supplied numbers
Basic Mathematical Operations
SUMReturns the sum of a supplied list of numbers
PRODUCTReturns the product of a supplied list of numbers
POWERReturns the result of a given number raised to a supplied power
SQRTReturns the positive square root of a given number
QUOTIENTReturns the integer portion of a division between two supplied numbers
MODReturns the remainder from a division between two supplied numbers
AGGREGATEPerforms a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a list or database, with the option to ignore hidden rows and error values (New in Excel 2010)
SUBTOTALPerforms a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a supplied set of values
Rounding Functions
CEILINGRounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to a multiple of significance
CEILING.PRECISERounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance (New in Excel 2010)
ISO.CEILINGRounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance. (New in Excel 2010)
CEILING.MATHRounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance (New in Excel 2013)
EVENRounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to the next even number
FLOORRounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to a multiple of significance
FLOOR.PRECISERounds a number down, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance (New in Excel 2010)
FLOOR.MATHRounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance (New in Excel 2013)
INTRounds a number down to the next integer
MROUNDRounds a number up or down, to the nearest multiple of significance
ODDRounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to the next odd number
ROUNDRounds a number up or down, to a given number of digits
ROUNDDOWNRounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to a given number of digits
ROUNDUPRounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to a given number of digits
TRUNCTruncates a number towards zero (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to the next integer.
Matrix Functions
MDETERMReturns the matrix determinant of a supplied array
MINVERSEReturns the matrix inverse of a supplied array
MMULTReturns the matrix product of two supplied arrays
MUNITReturns the unit matrix for a specified dimension (New in Excel 2013)
Random Numbers
RANDReturns a random number between 0 and 1
RANDBETWEENReturns a random number between two given integers
Conditional Sums
SUMIFAdds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy a given criteria
SUMIFSAdds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy multiple criteria (New in Excel 2007)
Advanced Mathematical Operations
SUMPRODUCTReturns the sum of the products of corresponding values in two or more supplied arrays
SUMSQReturns the sum of the squares of a supplied list of numbers
SUMX2MY2Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays
SUMX2PY2Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays
SUMXMY2Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two supplied arrays
SERIESSUMReturns the sum of a power series
Trigonometry Functions
PIReturns the constant value of pi
SQRTPIReturns the square root of a supplied number multiplied by pi
DEGREESConverts Radians to Degrees
RADIANSConverts Degrees to Radians
COSReturns the Cosine of a given angle
ACOSReturns the Arccosine of a number
COSHReturns the hyperbolic cosine of a number
ACOSHReturns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number
SECReturns the secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
SECHReturns the hyperbolic secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
SINReturns the Sine of a given angle
ASINReturns the Arcsine of a number
SINHReturns the Hyperbolic Sine of a number
ASINHReturns the Inverse Hyperbolic Sine of a number
CSCReturns the cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
CSCHReturns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
TANReturns the Tangent of a given angle
ATANReturns the Arctangent of a given number
ATAN2Returns the Arctangent of a given pair of x and y coordinates
TANHReturns the Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number
ATANHReturns the Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number
COTReturns the cotangent of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
COTHReturns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
ACOTReturns the arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013)
ACOTHReturns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013)
Exponents & Logarithms
EXPReturns e raised to a given power
LNReturns the natural logarithm of a given number
LOGReturns the logarithm of a given number, to a specified base
LOG10Returns the base 10 logarithm of a given number
Factorials
FACTReturns the Factorial of a given number
FACTDOUBLEReturns the Double Factorial of a given number
MULTINOMIALReturns the Multinomial of a given set of numbers
Miscellaneous
BASEConverts a number into a text representation, with the supplied base (New in Excel 2013)
DECIMALConverts a text representation of a number in a specified base into a decimal number (New in Excel 2013)
COMBINReturns the number of combinations (without repititions) for a given number of objects
COMBINAReturns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items (New in Excel 2013)
ARABICConverts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral (New in Excel 2013)
ROMANReturns a text string depicting the roman numeral for a given number

Further details of the Excel Math functions are provided on the Microsoft Office Website.