Excel Math Functions

The Excel Math Functions are provided by Excel, to carry out many of the common mathematical calculations, including basic arithmetic, conditional sums & products, and the trigonometric ratios. Mathematicians may also find the Excel Statistical Functions and Excel Engineering Functions useful.

Note that some of the functions are new to Excel 2007 or Excel 2010, so are not available in earlier versions of Excel.

The tables below list all the current built-in Excel math functions, grouped into categories, to help you to find the function you need. If you select a function name, this will take you to a full description of the function, with examples of use, tips & tricks, and common errors.


Excel Math and Trig Functions List

Basic Numeric Information
ABS Returns the absolute value (ie. the modulus) of a supplied number
SIGN Returns the sign (+1, -1 or 0) of a supplied number
GCD Returns the Greatest Common Divisor of two or more supplied numbers
LCM Returns the Least Common Multiple of two or more supplied numbers
Basic Mathematical Operations
SUM Returns the sum of a supplied list of numbers
PRODUCT Returns the product of a supplied list of numbers
POWER Returns the result of a given number raised to a supplied power
SQRT Returns the positive square root of a given number
QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division between two supplied numbers
MOD Returns the remainder from a division between two supplied numbers
AGGREGATE Performs a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a list or database, with the option to ignore hidden rows and error values (New in Excel 2010)
SUBTOTAL Performs a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a supplied set of values
Rounding Functions
CEILING Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to a multiple of significance
CEILING.PRECISE Rounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance (New in Excel 2010)
ISO.CEILING Rounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance. (New in Excel 2010)
CEILING.MATH Rounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance (New in Excel 2013)
EVEN Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to the next even number
FLOOR Rounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to a multiple of significance
FLOOR.PRECISE Rounds a number down, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance (New in Excel 2010)
FLOOR.MATH Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance (New in Excel 2013)
INT Rounds a number down to the next integer
MROUND Rounds a number up or down, to the nearest multiple of significance
ODD Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to the next odd number
ROUND Rounds a number up or down, to a given number of digits
ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to a given number of digits
ROUNDUP Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to a given number of digits
TRUNC Truncates a number towards zero (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to the next integer.
Matrix Functions
MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of a supplied array
MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of a supplied array
MMULT Returns the matrix product of two supplied arrays
MUNIT Returns the unit matrix for a specified dimension (New in Excel 2013)
Random Numbers
RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1
RANDBETWEEN Returns a random number between two given integers
Conditional Sums
SUMIF Adds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy a given criteria
SUMIFS Adds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy multiple criteria (New in Excel 2007)
Advanced Mathematical Operations
SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding values in two or more supplied arrays
SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of a supplied list of numbers
SUMX2MY2 Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays
SUMX2PY2 Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays
SUMXMY2 Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two supplied arrays
SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series
Trigonometry Functions
PI Returns the constant value of pi
SQRTPI Returns the square root of a supplied number multiplied by pi
DEGREES Converts Radians to Degrees
RADIANS Converts Degrees to Radians
COS Returns the Cosine of a given angle
ACOS Returns the Arccosine of a number
COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number
ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number
SEC Returns the secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
SECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
SIN Returns the Sine of a given angle
ASIN Returns the Arcsine of a number
SINH Returns the Hyperbolic Sine of a number
ASINH Returns the Inverse Hyperbolic Sine of a number
CSC Returns the cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
CSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
TAN Returns the Tangent of a given angle
ATAN Returns the Arctangent of a given number
ATAN2 Returns the Arctangent of a given pair of x and y coordinates
TANH Returns the Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number
ATANH Returns the Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number
COT Returns the cotangent of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
COTH Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle (New in Excel 2013)
ACOT Returns the arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013)
ACOTH Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013)
Exponentials & Logarithms
EXP Returns e raised to a given power
LN Returns the natural logarithm of a given number
LOG Returns the logarithm of a given number, to a specified base
LOG10 Returns the base 10 logarithm of a given number
Factorials
FACT Returns the Factorial of a given number
FACTDOUBLE Returns the Double Factorial of a given number
MULTINOMIAL Returns the Multinomial of a given set of numbers
Miscellaneous
BASE Converts a number into a text representation, with the supplied base (New in Excel 2013)
DECIMAL Converts a text representation of a number in a specified base into a decimal number (New in Excel 2013)
COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects
COMBINA Returns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items (New in Excel 2013)
ARABIC Converts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral (New in Excel 2013)
ROMAN Returns a text string depicting the roman numeral for a given number

Further details of these functions are provided on the Microsoft Office Website.

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