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Excel Math Functions
The Excel Math Functions are used to carry out many of the common mathematical calculations, including basic
arithmetic, conditional sums & products, and the trigonometric ratios. Mathematicians may also find the
Excel Statistical Functions and
Excel Engineering Functions useful.
The tables below list all the current builtin Excel math functions, grouped into categories, to help you to find
the function you need. If you select a function name, this will take you to a full description of the function, with
examples of use and common errors.
Note that some of the Excel math functions listed below are new to Excel 2007, Excel 2010 or Excel 2013, so are not
available in earlier versions of Excel.
Excel Math and Trig Functions List
Basic Numeric Information

ABS

Returns the absolute value (ie. the modulus) of a supplied number

SIGN

Returns the sign (+1, 1 or 0) of a supplied number

GCD

Returns the Greatest Common Divisor of two or more supplied numbers

LCM

Returns the Least Common Multiple of two or more supplied numbers

Basic Mathematical Operations

SUM

Returns the sum of a supplied list of numbers

PRODUCT

Returns the product of a supplied list of numbers

POWER

Returns the result of a given number raised to a supplied power

SQRT

Returns the positive square root of a given number

QUOTIENT

Returns the integer portion of a division between two supplied numbers

MOD

Returns the remainder from a division between two supplied numbers

AGGREGATE

Performs a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a list or database,
with the option to ignore hidden rows and error values
(New in Excel 2010)

SUBTOTAL

Performs a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a supplied set of values

Rounding Functions

CEILING

Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down),
to a multiple of significance

CEILING.PRECISE

Rounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance
(New in Excel 2010)

ISO.CEILING

Rounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance.
(New in Excel 2010)

CEILING.MATH

Rounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
(New in Excel 2013)

EVEN

Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down),
to the next even number

FLOOR

Rounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up),
to a multiple of significance

FLOOR.PRECISE

Rounds a number down, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance
(New in Excel 2010)

FLOOR.MATH

Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
(New in Excel 2013)

INT

Rounds a number down to the next integer

MROUND

Rounds a number up or down, to the nearest multiple of significance

ODD

Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down),
to the next odd number

ROUND

Rounds a number up or down, to a given number of digits

ROUNDDOWN

Rounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up),
to a given number of digits

ROUNDUP

Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down),
to a given number of digits

TRUNC

Truncates a number towards zero (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up),
to the next integer.

Matrix Functions

MDETERM

Returns the matrix determinant of a supplied array

MINVERSE

Returns the matrix inverse of a supplied array

MMULT

Returns the matrix product of two supplied arrays

MUNIT

Returns the unit matrix for a specified dimension (New in Excel 2013)

Random Numbers

RAND

Returns a random number between 0 and 1

RANDBETWEEN

Returns a random number between two given integers


Conditional Sums

SUMIF

Adds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy a given criteria

SUMIFS

Adds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy multiple criteria
(New in Excel 2007)

Advanced Mathematical Operations

SUMPRODUCT

Returns the sum of the products of corresponding values in two or more supplied arrays

SUMSQ

Returns the sum of the squares of a supplied list of numbers

SUMX2MY2

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays

SUMX2PY2

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays

SUMXMY2

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two supplied arrays

SERIESSUM

Returns the sum of a power series

Trigonometry Functions

PI

Returns the constant value of pi

SQRTPI

Returns the square root of a supplied number multiplied by pi

DEGREES

Converts Radians to Degrees

RADIANS

Converts Degrees to Radians

COS

Returns the Cosine of a given angle

ACOS

Returns the Arccosine of a number

COSH

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number

ACOSH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number

SEC

Returns the secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)

SECH

Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)

SIN

Returns the Sine of a given angle

ASIN

Returns the Arcsine of a number

SINH

Returns the Hyperbolic Sine of a number

ASINH

Returns the Inverse Hyperbolic Sine of a number

CSC

Returns the cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)

CSCH

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013)

TAN

Returns the Tangent of a given angle

ATAN

Returns the Arctangent of a given number

ATAN2

Returns the Arctangent of a given pair of x and y coordinates

TANH

Returns the Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number

ATANH

Returns the Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number

COT

Returns the cotangent of an angle
(New in Excel 2013)

COTH

Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle
(New in Excel 2013)

ACOT

Returns the arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013)

ACOTH

Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013)

Exponentials & Logarithms

EXP

Returns e raised to a given power

LN

Returns the natural logarithm of a given number

LOG

Returns the logarithm of a given number, to a specified base

LOG10

Returns the base 10 logarithm of a given number

Factorials

FACT

Returns the Factorial of a given number

FACTDOUBLE

Returns the Double Factorial of a given number

MULTINOMIAL

Returns the Multinomial of a given set of numbers

Miscellaneous

BASE

Converts a number into a text representation, with the supplied base
(New in Excel 2013)

DECIMAL

Converts a text representation of a number in a specified base into a decimal number
(New in Excel 2013)

COMBIN

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects

COMBINA

Returns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items
(New in Excel 2013)

ARABIC

Converts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral (New in Excel 2013)

ROMAN

Returns a text string depicting the roman numeral for a given number


Further details of these functions are provided on the
Microsoft Office Website.