Excel VBA Tutorial Part 5: VBA Conditional Statements

The main Excel VBA Conditional Statements are the If ... Then statement and the Select Case statement. Both of these evaluate one or more conditions and, depending on the result, execute specific actions.

The two Conditional Statement types are discussed individually below.


The Visual Basic If ... Then Statement

The If ... Then statement tests a condition and if it evaluates to true, carries out a set of actions. Alternative actions can be specified if the condition evaluates to false.

The format of the If ... Then statement is:

  If Condition1 Then
      Actions if Condition1 evaluates to True
  ElseIf Condition2 Then
      Actions if Condition2 evaluates to True
  Else
      Actions if none of the previous conditions evaluate to True
  End If

In the above if statement, the ElseIf and the Else parts of the conditional statement can be left out if desired.

In the example below, the If ... Then statement is used to color the current active cell, depending on the value of the cell contents.

  If ActiveCell.Value < 5 Then
      ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 65280  ' Color cell interior green
  ElseIf ActiveCell.Value < 10 Then
      ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 49407  ' Color cell interior orange
  Else
      ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 255    ' Color cell interior red
  End If

Note that, in the above example, the conditional statement stops once it has satisfied a condition. Therefore, if the ActiveCell value is less than 5, the first condition is satisfies and so the cell is colored green. The If ... Then statement is then exited, without testing any further conditions.


Further information on the VBA If ... Then statement is provided on the Microsoft Developer Network website.


The Visual Basic Select Case Statement

The Select Case statement is similar to the If ... Then statement, in that it tests an expression, and carries out different actions, depending on the value of the expression.

The format of the Select Case statement is:

  Select Case Expression
    Case Value1
        Actions if Expression matches Value1
    Case Value2
        Actions if Expression matches Value2
        .
        .
        .
    Case Else
        Actions if expression does not match any of listed cases
  End Select

In the above code block, the Case Else part of the conditional statement is optional.

The example below shows the Select Case statement being used to color the current active cell, depending on the value of the cell contents.

  Select Case ActiveCell.Value
    Case Is <= 5
        ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 65280  ' Color cell interior green
    Case 6, 7, 8, 9
        ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 49407  ' Color cell interior orange
    Case 10
        ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 65535  ' Color cell interior yellow
    Case Else
        ActiveCell.Interior.Color = 255    ' Color cell interior red
  End Select


The above example illustrates different ways of defining the different Cases in the Select Case statement. These are:

Case Is <= 5This is an example of how you can test if your expression satisfies a condition such as <= 5 by using the keyword Case Is
Case 6, 7, 8, 9This is an example of how you can test if your expression evaluates to any one of several values, by separating the possible values by commas
Case 10This is an example of the basic test of whether your expression evaluates to a specific value
Case ElseThis is an example of the 'Else' condition, which is executed if your expression hasn't matched any of the previous cases

Note that as soon as one case in the Select Case statement is matched, and the corresponding actions executed, the whole Select Case statement is exited. Therefore, you will never get entry into more than one of the listed cases.


Further information on the VBA Select Case statement is provided on the Microsoft Developer Network website.