The Excel NPV Function uses the following equation to calculate the Net Present Value of an Investment:
The Net Present Value is described in detail on the Wikipedia Net Present Value page
The Excel NPV function calculates the Net Present Value of an investment, based on a supplied discount rate, and a series of future payments and income.
The syntax of the function is:
Where the arguments are as follows:
rate    The discount rate over one period. 
value1, [value2], ...    Numeric values, representing a series of regular payments and income, where:

Note that:
Also note that in the latest versions of Excel, you can provide up to 254 value arguments to the Npv function, but in Excel 2003, the function can only accept up to 29 values.
A  B  

1  2%   Annual discount rate 
2  5000   Initial investment cost after 1 year 
3  800   Return from year 1 
4  950   Return from year 2 
5  1080   Return from year 3 
6  1220   Return from year 4 
7  1500   Return from year 5 
8  
9  Net Present Value:  
10  =NPV( A1, A2:A7 ) 
The above spreadsheet on the right shows an example of the NPV function.
The rate and value arguments that are supplied to the function are shown in cells A1  A7 of the spreadsheet and the NPV function is shown in cell B10.
This function gives the result 196.88.
Note that, in this example, the initial investment of $5,000 (shown in cell A2), is made at the end of the first period. Therefore, this value is included as the first value1 argument to the NPV function.
A  B  

1  5%   Annual discount rate 
2  10000   Initial investment cost at start of period 1 
3  2000   Return from year 1 
4  2400   Return from year 2 
5  2900   Return from year 3 
6  3500   Return from year 4 
7  4100   Return from year 5 
8  
9  Net Present Value:  
10  =NPV( A1, A3:A7 ) + A2 
The above spreadsheet on the right shows an example of the NPV function in which the first payment is made at the start of the first period.
Again, the rate and value arguments of the investment are shown in cells A1  A7 of the spreadsheet and the NPV function is shown in cell B10.
This function gives the result 2,678.68.
Note that, as the initial investment of $10,000 (shown in cell A2), is made at the start of the first period, this value is not included in the arguments to the NPV function. Instead it is added on afterwards.
Further examples of the Excel NPV function are provided on the Microsoft Office website